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Male infertility and Canadian pharmacy viagra


Category : Sexual Disease

Male infertility

Investigation of male fertility status using semen analysis is important, as a minority of men with CF (some few per cent only) will be fertile. This is more common with specific gene mutations. However, while the majority of men report they would like semen analysis to be undertaken in order to confirm their fertility status, not all men with CF are either tested or offered semen analysis. Studies suggest that between one in two and one in three men with CF have had semen analysis. Sawyer et al. also showed that the timing of semen analysis is still significantly later than desired: while more than 95 per cent of men said they believed that semen analysis should be offered to men before the age of 20 years, the youngest age of testing in this recent Australian study was 24 years.

The first studies to explore any aspect of the sexual and reproductive health needs of men with CF date from the late 1980s. These early studies showed that adolescent and adult men with CF had very poor knowledge of the sexual and reproductive complications of CF. Of note, Hames et al. found that the majority of both males and their parents were unaware that men with CF were infertile. More recent studies from the last decade in Boston, USA, Birmingham, England, Scotland and Australian have shown increasing awareness of infertility in men with CF: the majority of contemporary men with CF know that their fertility is likely to be affected by the disorder Buy Nolvadex in Canada, and know why this is so.

These studies also identify that between 68 and 84 per cent of men with CF want children in the future. The desire for more information on sexual and reproductive health is a consistent theme across studies. However, despite the improved survival of CF over the past few decades, few studies have directly assessed the impact of future infertility on teenagers with CF. Apart from a qualitative US study that included ten adolescent males (of whom five were not aware of male infertility), our knowledge of the impact of infertility in adolescence has been obtained from the (retrospective) reflections of adult men with CF. This qualitative study informed the development of a quantitative survey of adult men with CF in Australia. Both studies suggest that knowledge of infertility in adolescence is less overwhelming than might be thought. For example, 90 per cent of men reported not being distressed when they first heard about infertility during adolescence. Typical comments were:

  • There was no real effect at the time. I just took it as part of CF. (29-year-old who first heard about likely infertility when aged 12)


  • I didn’t really think about it much. At the time I wasn’t upset. (27-year-old who first heard when 15)

However, 10 per cent described a significant impact upon hearing of male infertility in adolescence. For example, one said:

  • It took me by surprise, I was shocked. (25-year-old who was first told when he was 12)

The impact of infertility appears to become more significant as adolescents and young adults mature and form more intimate and committed relation-ships where there is an expectation of fertility. Typical comments were:

  • At first it went in one ear and out the other, but then I thought about it. (20-year-old)


  • At the moment it’s not a concern. It’s like it hasn’t really hit me yet. Later, it could be devastating. (19-year-old)

Infertility was reported as an insignificant aspect of CF by only 10 per cent of adult men. For example, one commented:

  • I’ve been busy with living, which is more important than having kids. (38-year-old)

External relationships of the four perspectives Part 3


Category : Sexual Disease

The Perspectives, Psychiatric History, and Mental Status Examination

The perspectives methodology requires a certain body of information and data about an individual before it can be fully used. This basic level of knowledge is usually obtained in the initial evaluation, together with psychological assessment and interviews with available patient informants (e.g., family members). The evaluation of the patient consists of a full psychiatric history and mental status examination. These two procedures, in particular, provide information about possible familial predispositions for disorders, key developmental data, personal psychiatric history, history of substance use, and a behavioral assessment of present mental and emotional functioning.

The history and mental status examination have traditionally been the domain of psychiatry, although more and more social workers and psychologists, especially those associated with mental health facilities, now take initial histories and conduct mental status examinations. Indeed, it is the responsibility of the mental health evaluator, regardless of professional group, to provide the information garnered in the history and mental status examination. If the clinician does not obtain a full history and mental status examination in the initial stage of therapy, but rather proceeds without this knowledge to “let the history unfold,” it is nearly impossible to see how the full perspectives methodology could be employed. The clinician seems to have opted for the life story perspective, while information vital for the other perspectives depends on a fortuitous unfolding of the history.

The Perspectives, Clinical Formulation, and DSM-IV-TR Diagnoses

A psychological or psychiatric evaluation consists of the history, mental status examination, and data provided by psychological assessment and informants. The goal of the evaluation is to construct a formulation of the case—the clinician’s summary of the complex interaction of factors that may have influenced the form, content, and function of the disorder that brings the individual into treatment. It is the product, clearly, of the skill and clinical wisdom of the evaluating mental health professional.

The diagnosis is one element of the formulation that relates the clinical presentation of the particular patient to the larger world of clinical syndromes, disorders, and problematic behaviors. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR and the entire DSM series have been an effort to provide empirically valid and reliable criteria for psychiatric diagnostic categories.

One of the most remarkable achievements of North American psychiatry, the DSM has facilitated research and reliable communication in the mental health field by organizing symptoms and behaviors into psychiatric diagnoses.

Two extremes are found among mental health practitioners’ attitudes toward DSM-IV-TRdiagnoses. In one camp are those who believe their sole evaluation task is to assign the proper diagnosis according to DSMIV- TR criteria. For these clinicians, determining the proper diagnosis is the goal of the evaluation. Following the intention of the DSM-IV-TR, in reaching a diagnosis they are driven not by theory but by their empirical findings in the patient’s history and mental status examination. Clinical research protocols often are concerned only with diagnosis, because of their interest in study participants that meet the symptominclusion profile.

In the other camp are mental health clinicians who are quite indifferent to DSM diagnoses and avoid them at all possible costs—excluding requests from third-party payers, of course. This group is more interested in letting the patient’s history unfold in the course of therapy. They tend to see diagnostic categories as unfortunate limitations to the complexity of the person’s psychological history and status. For these clinicians, the formulation of the case is a process constantly open to revision based on new information provided in the course of psychotherapy.

The perspectives methodology assists in both the diagnosis and the formulation of the individual case. After obtaining a full history and mental status examination from the patient, the clinician who employs the perspectives methodology will be able to provide the objective and empirical data required by the DSM-IV-TR while also having garnered sufficient information to develop a rich formulation of the person and the disorder. Diagnosis is not sufficient for clinical treatment in psychiatric disorders or in sexual disorders. More must be said about a case than diagnosis, and this “more” is information that is organized with the perspectives methodology.

External relationships of the four perspectives Part 2


Category : Sexual Disease

The Perspectives and the Biopsychosocial Model

At first glance, the perspectives methodology may seem to be Adolf Meyer’s psychobiology revisited. As later developed by George Engel, the biopsychosocial model urges clinicians, in treating their patients, to take into account aspects of biology, psychology, and culture. In recent years, the model has been of special interest in the treatment of psychosomatic conditions such as chronic pain, where it has proved effective. In psychiatry there has been a renewed call for research on the integration of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the name of biopsychosocial integration.

What, then, is the relationship of the perspectives model to the biopsychosocial model? Simply put, the perspectives provide a method of using the central insight of the biopsychosocial model: that there are multiple determinants of behaviors and conditions arising from biology, psychology, and the social and physical environment. Because nothing a priori is excluded in the biopsychosocial model, its application can pose a heuristic challenge. Recall that Engel’s levels of organization in his systems hierarchy spanned everything from subatomic particles to the biosphere. Granted, no clinician or researcher attempts to consider and control for the universe of possible factors; nevertheless, methodological assistance is needed to decide how to go about considering the literally “too numerous to number” factors that make up our biopsychosocial world – canadian health and care mall.

Enter the perspectives methodology. The perspectives take on the challenge of the biopsychosocial approach to consider nearly everything in the formulation of the individual case and to organize the data into four major perspectives. Employed diligently, these organizing perspectives assist the clinician to consider, if not “everything” in the biopsychosocial universe, at least a great deal more than he or she might consider without the methodology. In addition, the repeated interaction of the perspectives assists the clinician to link together the various strata of the biopsychosocial model in an effective treatment approach.

In the most recent description of his perspectives, Paul McHugh places “the perspectives into a view of human mental life as organized hierarchically into four distinct but interrelated domains from the most neurologically basic to the most individually highly developed.” Table is McHugh’s scheme of how the perspectives relate to each other in the biopsychosocial world and, even more, how they address modes of mental disorders and basic treatment goals. Each of these components interacts with the others; the table expresses how the perspectives are structured from the most basic neurological level to the most complex cognitive one.an-overview-of-the-perspectives1

Clearly, then, the perspectives methodology is not antithetical to the biopsychosocial model. In addition to the organizing function, at least three of the four perspectives—disease, behavior, and life story perspectives— assume there are biological and psychosocial components in the genesis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. The remaining perspective, dimension, seeks to measure constructs that are biological, cultural, and psychological. In that sense, the perspectives are built on and employ the biopsychosocial model.

The perspectives thus are a methodological supplement to the biopsychosocial model, because they help organize and apply the latter model in the individual cases presented to a mental health clinician. If the biopsychosocial model is a unified theory that seeks to explain all causes, the perspectives are much more modest in their aim. The perspectives model suggests the methods one might employ to put the biopsychosocial model into rational practice. In many ways, the perspectives are the operational testing and application of biopsychosocial theory.

The perspectives help one to avoid using a ritualized invocation of the biopsychosocial model and then proceeding with a treatment regimen that ignores key elements. A recent survey of 54 (of 118 polled) U.S. medical schools suggested that while many attempts are made to teach biopsychosocial medicine to future physicians, there are generally still barriers in the development of a unified curriculum that might be described as “biopsychosocial.” This survey of medical schools is prob ably a good indication of most treatment approaches today: the biopsychosocial is invoked as the model guiding evaluation and treatment, but barriers remain to its being as influential as it might be. The perspectives are an attempt to provide a way of increasing the effectiveness of the biopsychosocial model.

Just as with the biopsychosocial model, it is not a question of “new” knowledge in employing the perspectives. Every aspect of the perspectives has already been written about and employed clinically. It would be erroneous, therefore, to expect some new information from the perspectives themselves. What is original is the structured organization of the perspectives. The essence of the working of the perspectives is dialectical. They take the clinician’s “I know such and such” and invite him or her to hear, “But you must also consider your patient from this other perspective.” Then, from the application of the newly adopted perspectives, the clinician achieves a fuller appreciation of the disorder and approaches for treating the disorder.

External relationships of the four perspectives Part 1


Category : Sexual Disease

The Perspectives and Sexual Science

Despite the amount of information abroad about sex, we are only beginning to understand the multifactorial causes of sexual behavior, especially the interaction of biological effects and cultural contexts. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the shift in the causal attributions that have been applied to male sexual arousal in the past twenty-five years. Until the mid-1970s, a combination of the life story and behavior perspectives was used to explain erectile dysfunction in the vast majority of cases. Only those men who had obvious neurological and/or vascular diseases were thought to have “organic” causes of erectile dysfunction. All other men with erectile dysfunction had “performance anxiety” or “spectatoring” (behavior perspective), or the sexual dysfunction was an expression of some unresolved conflict arising earlier in life (life story perspective).young-men-his-women1

Enter, in the early 1990s, the disease perspective, with its interest in physiological function in sexual arousal. Basic research on nitric oxide’s effect on penile arousal was applied by Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, which produced and marketed sildenafil, Viagra. With the advent of the oral medication in 1998, many speculated that there would no longer be a need for a psychological approach to erectile dysfunction: the pill would solve everything. Erectile dysfunction was to be considered a medical disorder and treated with medical interventions. The disease perspective had nearly replaced the behavior and life story perspectives as the operative perspective on male erectile dysfunction. Female viagra online Australia

Other clinicians did not remain silent about what appeared to them as a reductionistic reliance on the medical/disease perspective. Social constructionism theorists, researchers, and experienced sexual clinicians, writing and speaking largely from the life story perspective, challenged the rise of the medicalization of sexuality (the disease perspective). Their argument was that human sexuality is a far more complex reality than the achievement of reliable erections. They pressed for the inclusion of psychological and relational factors distinct from physiological function when researchers wanted to report on the efficacy of a treatment for sexual disorders. Although these theorists did not intend to employ a four-perspectives methodology, they did in fact work with this method. They took a prevailing perspective and brought other perspectives into dialogue with it.

The four perspectives, each through its relativity to the others, offer checks and balances to the reductionism that may result from the application of a single perspective. There is a constant “but what about . . . ?” refrain that requires the sexual scientist and clinician to consider something they may have overlooked or prematurely dismissed. In all areas of psychiatric thought—but perhaps most in sexual behavior, with its biological, psychological, and cultural components—the four perspectives provide an open-ended dynamic for looking at cases and problems with new questions.

Sex, Drugs and the disease PERSPECTIVE


Category : Womens Issues

1da77334cd9311401d65e5be4ad5817aDrugs (medically prescribed, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, illicit drugs) are consumed to cure, to calm, to stimulate, or to avoid physical and psychological pain. The body affected by drugs is a body with altered sexual responsiveness. Therefore, ingested drugs must be recognized as possible causes of sexual dysfunctions and disorders.

Some drugs are alleged to be prosexual in that they are thought to promote sexual activity. Alcohol, cocaine, and hallucinogens, including amphetamines, fall into this grouping. Alcohol is popularly thought to decrease inhibitions about sexual activity. In fact, several researchers over the decades have generally concluded that alcohol has negative physiological effects on arousal and orgasm, to say nothing of the severe health effects that can result from sustained alcohol abuse. But the expectations of both women and men are such that they report increased sexual functioning, even when responding to an alcohol placebo. Thus, the frequent clinical situation is that patients generally believe that alcohol helps them to function sexually, while in fact both its short-term and long-term effects on healthy sexual functioning may be the opposite.

Cocaine is a drug of abuse that is often linked with sexual behavior. As is often the case with alcohol intoxication, cocaine impairs judgment and often leads to sexual activity that puts individuals at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Cocaine’s dopaminergic effect increases sexual desire in both men and women but also inhibits orgasm and, given a sufficient dosage, causes erectile dysfunction. Individuals with a cocaine habit will find themselves with increased sexual desire, with little inhibition about the sexual activity, and eventually unable to become aroused.

Hallucinogens such as LSD, Ecstasy, mushrooms, and amphetamines are commonly perceived to be aphrodisiac in their effect on sexual function. This might be expected given the CNS effects caused by these substances. As Crenshaw and Goldberg noted, “The intoxicated states (however mystical) that occur with hallucinogens involve severe alterations in dopamine, serotonin and excitatory amino acid activity. Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust), for example, incites potent activity at glutamate receptors, apparently inducing psychoses by altering excitatory amino acids.

Other drugs are decidedly negative in their effects on sexual functioning. Excessive alcohol, chronic nicotine use that has caused cardiovascular disease, some antihypertensives, and many antidepressants—all have been implicated in interfering with sexual function. Table lists some of the more commonly prescribed drugs and their effects on sexual function. This not an exhaustive list, but it provides examples of the reported sexual dysfunctions associated with the drugs.

Given the various effects that drugs can have on the physiological basis of sexual function, the clinician needs to know what drugs the individual with a sexual problem is taking. A complete review of a patient’s use of prescribed, over-the-counter, and possible illegal drugs is essential. Once known, the drugs should be examined for their possible contributory role in the sexual problem. But if you need treatment erectile dysfunction you can use Generic Viagra in Australia – it have low cost and can amaze you and your friend. Viagra with medical component Sildenafil can work wonders in Your Sexual Life. In our store you can purchase female viagra to increase sexual desire in women by first pill.



Category : News


Little is known about the effects of anticonvulsants on sexual functioning in bipolar patients despite their many years of use. Although there are some reports addressing anticonvulsant effects on sexual function in patients with epilepsy, evaluating this limited information is difficult because sexual dysfunction often accompanies epilepsy. There are a few case reports of ejaculatory failure related to carbamazepine and gabapentin, but the frequency of this possible effect is unknown. Little is known about sexual side effects of the commonly used anticonvulsant, divalproex. At best there are a few case reports suggesting that divalproex may reduce libido or the ability to achieve orgasm in women, though there are no prospective controlled studies to delineate the extent of this possible problem. There is a suggestion that lamotrigine may have some advantages over the other anticonvulsants regarding sexual side effects, but this is preliminary. Read more about female viagra here.

In one study of 62 patients, women and men showed modest overall improvement in sexual function scores when switched from another anticonvulsant to lamotrigine. Because of the lack of control group and the possible confound of epilepsy of sexual function, it is difficult to extend these findings to patients with mood disorders, though it suggests that lamotrigine may have fewer sexual side effects than other anticonvulsants.

Phenytoin and carbamazepine induce metabolism of androgens, while divalproex inhibits this metabolism. This would suggest that phenytoin and carbamazepine could be problem prone and valproate less problem prone, though prospective study is lacking. Valproic acid has not been studied prospectively in samples of patients with bipolar disorder for its effects on androgens and sexual functioning. There are, however, several case reports of reduced libido or orgasm inability in patients with mood disorders treated with divalproex.

A cross-sectional, nonrandomized study of 75 men with epilepsy found that sexual dysfunction was more commonly associated with phenytoin (n = 25) and carbamazepine (n = 25) than with control patients (n = 25) or lamotrigine (n = 25) treated patients. Lamotrigine-treated patients reported sexual symptoms at approximately the same rate as a normal control group. In this study, patients rated sexual functioning on a rating scale that measured ‘sexual interest and potency’ as well as had blood measured for gonadal hormones, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone and estradiol. Mean sexual function scores for lamotrigine were slightly higher, and statistically greater compared with the carbamazepine and phenytoin groups. The effect size, however, was quite small. Additionally, testosterone concentrations were lower in the carbamazepine- and phenytoin-treated patients compared with the lamotrigine treated patients, which were similar to controls. Although this information may not be extended to patients without epilepsy, it appears that lamotrigine is less prone toward causing sexual dysfunction than carbamazepine and phenytoin, though none of the anticonvulsants may seriously affect sexual functioning.

Anxiolytic Drugs

The benzodiazepines have not been prospectively studied regarding their effects on sexual function. There are a number of retrospective reports suggesting that clonzepam may be problematic for sexual functioning, though other reports suggest that it might not be problematic. All of the benzodiazepines have been suggested to cause sexual dysfunction, but there are no prospective studies examining sexual function in patients taking this class of medication for an anxiety disorder. Considering the frequency of their use, the lack of reports suggests that the side effects may be of minor importance. Moreover, without baseline measure before drug initiation, some of the reported sexual dysfunction may be related to the mood or anxiety disorders for which they are prescribed. The few reports available for review are cross-sectional or retrospective in small samples and rating scales were not necessarily employed. Decreases in libido, arousal, and orgasm have all been reported. In one study, detailed in the ‘Lithium’ section above, the authors found that benzodiazepines combined with lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder patients caused 40% of patients to experience sexual side effects, which was considerably higher than the 14% rate in patients taking only lithium. The study did not evaluate if the effects were specifically associated with arousal, orgasm or libido for the combination of lithium and benzodiazepines. On the other hand, an early small placebo-controlled study in normal patients without anxiety found that diazepam ‘facilitated sexual behaviors in normals’. Viagra in Canada

While some sexual dysfunction in patients with anxiety disorders taking benzodiazepines may be attributable to benzodiazepines, the effects of benzodiazepines on sexual function clearly need further prospective study to determine the extent and clinical relevance.

Buspirone is an anxiolytic that does not appear to have sexual side effects, though it has not been specifically studied in prospective studies for its propensity to cause sexual side effects. Interestingly, as noted in the antidepressant section, buspirone may reverse sexual dysfunction associated with serotonin reuptake antidepressant use. It appears that this benefit is only with relatively high doses, approximately 45–60mg per day. Without further study, it remains unknown if buspirone monotherapy causes any adverse or salutary sexual effects.

How Do Weight Loss Pills Work?


Category : Weight Loss

Weight loss pills Australia have always been an easy and convenient option for losing weight. But their effect has been different for people, while some dieters swear by them, others have tried several different diet pills for weight loss with no success. The difference in the effectiveness of these pills is due to the various ingredients used. For a better understanding on how these pills work, read on.Choosing the best pill can be a tough decision for most customers. Most of the pills are made from ingredients like herbs, vitamins and minerals, along with other substances. These ingredients may not lead to weight loss individually, but they can be quite effective when used in combination.

So, the basic ways in which weight loss pills work are the three, listed below:By suppressing appetite – Poor diet control and binging on food is a major reason why people are unable to lose weight. The pills have anorectic elements that help in suppressing the appetite. There are two common appetite suppressants that are safe to use. The first one works on the Gastro-intestinal Tract, while the second one works on the brain. The suppressants working on the intestinal tract comprise certain fibers like bran. These fibers cause the food in the intestines to swell up, and creating the impression of being filled up. The suppressants working on the brain create the feeling of being full, like one feels when they are actually well fed. Many of these suppressants and pills are banned due to their side effects, so always buy one from a trusted pharmaceutical company.

By blocking digestion of fat – The fat would not get piled up in the body, if it was not digested in the first place. These ingredients are such that they bind themselves with the fat in the food and are removed through the body in excreta.

By increasing metabolic rate – These ingredients cause your body to burn fat faster and increase calorie burn. The fat burners contain a combination of ingredients like- pyruvates, essential fatty acids and certain herbal stimulants. There are various kinds of fat burners like: Thermogenic fat burners. These increase the metabolism of the body and the calories are burnt fairly quickly. Green tea is an antioxidant and is known as a good fat burner too.

The latest weight loss pills in the market do much more than just suppressing your appetite or increasing your metabolism. They also make you feel healthier, fitter and more energetic. They are engineered to help you lose body fat and not just the water retention. You need to be aware of the latest development in weight loss pills techniques, so that you buy the fastest, most effective yet the safest pill in the market. New Zealand viagra online

When you buy weight-loss pills to lose weight, then keep in mind that you need to burn more calories that you consume. Eat less and burn more. Your moderate diet must be a balanced one with basic food groups, vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. You must combine your moderate diet and pill schedule with regular physical activity. Thus is the healthiest combination to not only lose weight effectively, but also maintain a healthy body weight. You need to strike a balance between your lifestyle choices and ongoing weight management to achieve your desired weight loss. Before taking up natural weight loss supplements, it is advisable to consult your health care practitioner.

Vaginal Dryness Symptoms and Treatment During Menopause


Category : Menopause

Vaginal dryness in women indicates symptoms that lead to menopause. It can highly affect your daily life and cause severe problems in your sexual life. Mostly women do not report this condition to their gynecologist as they think that it is part and parcel of being a woman but the fact is that there are things that women can take help of if they are suffering from vaginal atrophy or vaginal dryness. In this article let us find out some effective remedial measures you can take to lead a normal and healthy life during menopause.

Causes of Vaginal Dryness

Mainly this condition is experienced as a side effect of menopause. During menopause vaginal and urinary tissues become thin and shrink considerably due to the reduced levels of estrogen in the body. This thinning of tissues cause many uncomfortable and embarrassing health issues to women.


Due to the reduced levels of estrogen in the body multiple number of tissues lose their natural elasticity specially the ones present in the urinary area. This causes lack of elasticity and low lubrication the vaginal area which can cause extreme discomforting situations like pain during sexual intercourse, inflammation, urinary incontinence, burning and watery vaginal discharge.

All these above conditions clearly point to the health ailment called vaginal atrophy or vaginal dryness which is faced by a majority of women at some point in their life.

How To Treat Vaginal Dryness

A woman can do a lot of things to experience relief from this condition. The most sought after remedy is hormone therapy which involves replacement of estrogen from the ovaries that they are no longer producing in the body. The following can also be used as effective remedial measures for vaginal dryness.

Herbal Vaginal Lubricants

These herbal lubricants for overcoming vagina dryness are highly effective and provide immediate relief. These herbal creams support the normal production of vaginal fluids hence helping the body naturally lubricate the vagina.

Have An Active Sex Life

Women who indulge in regular sexual activities have been found to deal better with vaginal dryness problems as regular sex allows normal flow of blood to vagina area and provide nourishment to vaginal cells. A lot of foreplay and even masturbation can help in keeping the vagina moist.

Strengthen Pelvic Floor Muscles

Providing strength to your pelvic floor muscles can effectively help in enhanced sexual life and improved circulation of blood to the vaginal area for normal sexual functioning.

Obstetrics and Obstetricians Are Needed To Ensure A Healthy Birth


Category : Womens Issues

The field of obstetrics is actually a very focused realm. Those who practice within this specialty are medical doctors who specialize in pregnancies and any other occurrences that take place in the reproductive tract while the individual is with child, planning to have a child or have just given birth to one. It is safe to say that this field is all about getting, being and just been pregnant. Those who practice this are called obstetricians and it is tightly connected to gynecology. In fact, many of those who specialize in it are also gynecologists.


Many people want to have kids and they usually consult a medical professional who is well versed in obstetrics and gynecology to achieve this. In most cases, the couple would have had some difficulty conceiving a child for a few years already before they consult a doctor. The doctor discusses the couple’s or the individual’s need or want to have a baby and may want to be privy to their private lives and daily routines and activities. The discussion will be of the intimate sort and the medical professional will make recommendations regarding what to do in order to achieve readiness to conceive. Tests will be done to check the couple for any issues.


A pregnant woman should also consult an obstetrician in order to monitor the health of her unborn baby. Obstetrics is all about the entire duration that the child stays in the womb and then some. Monthly visits are encouraged by the doctor in order to regularly check on the progress that both mother and fetus are making. The weight of the woman is checked as well as any other issues that she may have before or during the pregnancy. Recommendations connected to her health and that of the child are made early on especially concerning her diet and activities while she is with child. As she nears the time when she is estimated to give birth, the doctor may recommend visits weekly, especially if there are underlying problems during the pregnancy. Close monitoring will tell the obstetrician what possible types of childbirth methods she might need to do as well as other safeguards during the last few months as well as the childbirth itself. When it is time to give birth, the obstetrician will deliver the baby and take care of the mother.

Post Pregnancy

The expert in obstetrics will regularly check the mother immediately after childbirth in order to closely monitor her health and well-being. The woman will also be requested to visit the doctor’s clinic for the first few months after giving birth. The obstetrician will also recommend birth control if the couple or the woman wishes to do this. These are just recommendations and the person is not obliged to actually follow them.

This is the general overview of the obstetrics field that usually has both obstetricians and gynecologists. There are more sub specialties under this broad field. The doctors under this field of practice are qualified to perform surgery, focusing on childbirth methods and other techniques related to gynecology.

Hormone Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer – A New Perspective


Category : Womens Issues

The news has again been filled with reports of the dangers of hormone replacement therapy. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on October 20, 2010 looked at the same people from the infamous Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). The news isn’t that different, they just followed the study participants longer and found the cancers to be more aggressive.

Here’s a perspective:

• The women in the WHI were given 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) (synthetic) and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (synthetic progesterone otherwise known as progestin).

• CEE is available in much lower doses and bioidentical estradiol is available in both patch and oral form. The patch allows hormone to be absorbed through the skin and does not increase clotting.

• Progestin was implicated in cancer risk and we now have pharmaceutical bioidentical progesterone known as Prometrium or it can be compounded by a compounding pharmacy. There is a difference between synthetic progestin and bioidentical progesterone which is the same chemical structure made by your body.

• The average age of those in the study was 63, and most were well past menopause when they started hormone replacement therapy.

• Reports from the most recent North American Menopause Society meeting in Chicago indicate that there was a statistically significant reduction in mortality and a positive benefit to risk ratio for women started on hormone therapy in the first decade after onset of menopause when data from the two Women’s Health Initiative hormone therapy trials were pooled.

• The deaths due to breast cancer were 2.6 per 10,000 women and women who were not on hormone replacement therapy also developed breast cancer at the rate of 1.3 deaths per 10,000 women.

• Dr. Andre Lalonde, Executive Vice-President, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada stated, “The increased risks for breast cancer in users of combination hormone therapy is about the same risk women accept when they drink alcohol, don’t exercise regularly or gain weight after menopause.”

So many women suffer and both doctors and patients are fearful of hormone replacement therapy. The point is, that it is time for a new large scale study using bioidentical hormones at the beginning of menopause. I suggest you read the press release from Dr. Andre Lalonde which can be found on the home page of The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada

If you are experiencing symptoms of menopause, talk to a doctor who specializes in bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and get a perspective of the risks and benefits.